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Now looking at definitions starting with letter "s"

S : Side. The difference component of a stereo signal, i.e., the components which come from the side of the stereo field. See M & S.

S & S : Sampling and Synthesis. A term used to describe synthesizers which combine elements of these processes to produce their sound.

S-DAT : Stationary-head Digital Audio Tape. A bi-directional cassette tape designed for domestic digital recording. The head is stationary, as opposed to the rotating head of R-DAT. The tape speed is very low compared to professional stationary-head systems, such as DASH. The required data rate for stereo operation is achieved by distributing the 16-bit data over 20 data tracks in each direction. The sample rates are the same as for R-DAT, but 4-channel recording is possible at 32kHz with 12-bit nonlinear operation. S-DAT is not compatible with DCC as the latter does not conform to the S-DAT standard. See DAT.

S-format : See C-format.

S.R. : Senza Repeats, as in "play from the sign without repeats," written D.S. (S.R.).

S/N : See signal-to-noise ratio.

S/PDIF : Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format. A consumer standard, similar to the professional AES/EBU standard, (IEC-958) for encoding digital audio. Given the international standard number IEC-958, S/PDIF was originally designed to be the standard for transmitting audio data between CD players and DAT players, at a time when DAT was thought to be the next consumer audio recording medium.. The data transmission is the same as AES/EBU: four times the sample rate. S/PDIF uUses either standard unbalanced coaxial cable and phono jacks, or fibre optic cable and a connector called a Toslink, usually at -10dB. Note that the coaxis is not an RCA audio cable, but a video-grade cable: the impedance on this cable is 75Ω, and . Note also that S/PDIF carries the SCMS copy code. Both S/PDIF is a and its professional counterpart, AES/EBU, are self-clocking schemes. The EIAJ has adopted S/PDIF as CP-340 Type II.

sabin : The efficiency with which materialsitems in a room absorbsoak up sound and damp down reverberation is measured in sabins, abbreviated Sa. The number of sabins of absorption is found by multiplying the number of square feet of a particular material by the absorption coefficient of that material. Also spelled sabine.

Sabine equation : The reverberation time of a room is found using the Sabine equation:

RT60 = 0.049 X (V/Sa)

SACD : Super Audio Compact Disc. Philips/Sony’s proposal for a next-generation CD which combines DVD technology to produce a hybrid disc that will play in conventional CD players, but offering better audio quality than currently available CDs when played in a DVD player. The upper later is the "conventional (Red Book) layer, while the lower layer provides around 4.7 Gb of high-density storage, increasing the audio capacity to 4.7Gb, the same as a first-generation DVD, and allow text, graphics, and video alongside audio. Audio will be encoded via either standard 16-bit PCM at 44.1kHz, or "Super Audio" using Sony’s DSD data format and Philips’ DST data compression technologies, yielding 74 minutes of six-channel audio with purportedly a frequency response of DC–1MHz and the same dynamic range as conventional digital recordings of 24–bit/96kHz resolution. SACD employs SBM noise-shaping, and PSP copy protection. The intention of the SACD standard is to ultimately combine a stereo DSD track and a six-channel DSD surround mix, plus optional data, text, graphics, and video data. Here is a comparison between conventional (Red Book) CD and (the current (3/99) prototype specification for) SACD:

SACEM : Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Éditeurs de Musique. The French equivalent of BMI/ASCAP.

sadas sadasdad

sadasd sadasdasd

safe mode : One of the operating modes of tape recorder electronics. Any tracks placed in safe mode are prevented from entering record mode, even if the engineer accidentally depresses the record-ready button or master-record button. Opposite of ready mode.

safety : Short for safety copy or safety master, a duplicate of any audio or video tape made in case the master itself is lost or damaged. Also called a protection copy

SAIT (Super AIT) See, AIT

sample : (1) A digitally recorded representation of a sound. Also, a single word of the data that makes up such a recording. Also called a patch or a program. (2) To make a digital recording by taking regular measurements of the instantaneous voltage of an analog signal. See sampling. (3) Any single measurement of such a voltage.

sample (playback) synthesis : The production of a sound where a digital oscillator plays back a digitally sampled recording of an actual sound, such as a note played on a trumpet or guitar.

sample-and-hold : The part of the A/D converter which actually does the job of sampling the signal. It measures the instantaneous signal voltage at a particular time and holds this level constant for the duration of the sampling interval as determined by the sampling rate. This level is meanwhile converted into a digital word before the sample-and-hold moves to the next sample. See aperture time errors.

sampler : Essentially a digital recorder. An device that digitally records and plays back external sound sources, usually by allowing them to be distributed across a keyboard or other controller and played back at various pitches. Compare with synthesizer.

sampling : The process of encoding an analog signal in digital form by reading (sampling) its level at precisely spaced intervals of time. See sample, sampling rate.

sampling error : See jitter and aliasing.

sampling rate : The rate at which PAM samples of an analog signal are encoded by a digital device. The higher the sampling rate during the encoding process, the greater the spectral bandwidth of signal it is able to record accurately. Typical sampling rates vary from 11kHz to 96kHz. The sampling rate for CDs is 44.1kHz. See sampling, Nyquist frequency. Sampling rates can be changed via a sampling rate converter, when the process is known as resampling.

SAN Storage Area Network collections of initiators, such as servers or individual “workstations,” and use storage devices, typically desk- or tape-based, that are connected over a specialized or private LAN. The LAN can either have a copper or fiber PHY and usually employs either the ISCSI or FC protocols.

SAOL : Structured Audio Orchestra Language. See MPEG-4. Together with SASBF these describe Wavetable syntheses. This is used in MPEG-4. A computer downloads and decodes structured Audio files containing samples, instrument definitions, and performance information. The decoded data is then used to re-create the music on the user’s system.

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